Chapter 1 Accounting for partnership firms fundamentals Class 12 Accountancy 2022-2023 CBSE Notes & PDF

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“Partnership is the relations between two or more persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any one of them acting for all”

Features of Partnership

1. Two or more persons: There must be at least two persons to form a valid partnership. The maximum number of partners cannot exceed the number of partners prescribed by Companies Act, 2013 which is 50 in any business whether banking or non- banking.

2. Agreement: Partnership comes into existence by an agreement (either written or oral among the partners. The written agreement among the partners is called Partnership Deed.

3. Existence of business and profit motive: A partnership can be formed for the purpose of carrying on legal business with the intention of earning profits. A joint ownership of some property by itself cannot be called a partnership.

4. Sharing of Profits: An agreement between the partners must be aimed at sharing the profits. If some persons join hands to run some charitable activity, it will not be called partnership. Futher, if a partner is deprived of his right to share the profits of the business, he cannot be called as partner.

5. Buiness carried on by all or any of them acting for all: It means that each partner can participate in the conduct of business and each partner is bound by the acts of other partners in respect to the business of the firm.

6. Relationship of Principal and Agent: Each partner is an agent ad well as a partner of the firm. An agent, because he can bind the other partners by his acts and principal, because he himself can be bound by the acts of the other partners.

Partnership Deed

Since partnership is the outcome of an agreement, it is essential that there must be some terms and conditions agreed upon by all the partners. Such terms and conditions mat be either written or oral. The law does not make it compulsory to have a written agreement. However, in order to avoid all misunderstandings and disputes, it is always the best course to have a written agreement duly signed and registered under the Act.

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Distribution of Profits among Partners

Transactiions of the partnerhsip firm are recorded according to the principles of Double-entry book keeping system, and as in the case of a sole proprietorship concern a partnership firm will also prepare Trading account, Profit & Loss account and Balance Sheet at the end of every year. The only difference between accounting of a sole trader and partnership firm is that the profits of the partnership firm ar divided amongst the partners.

A Profit and Loss Appropriation Account is prepared to show the distribution of profits among partners as per the provision of Partnership Deed (or as per the provision of Indian Partnership Act, 1932 in the absence of Partnership Deed). It is an extension of profit and Loss Account. It is nominal account. It records entries for interest on capital, Interest on Drawings, Salary to the partner, and division of profits among the partners.


The Journal Entries regarding Profit and Loss Appropriation Account are as follows:

1.For transfer of balance of Profit and Loss Account

Profit and Loss A/cDr.

To Profit and Loss Appropriation A/c

2.For Interest on Capital

For allowing Interest on capital

1. Interest on Capital A/c

To Partner’s Capital/Current A/cs

(Being interest on capital allowed @ % p.a.)

2. For transferring Interest on Capital to p&L appropriation A/c.

Profit and Loss Appropriation A/cDr.

To Interest on Capital A/c.

(Being interest on capital transferred to p&L Appropriation A/c)

3. For Salary or Commission payable to a partner

i. For allowing Salary or Commission to a partner:

Partners Salary/Commission A/cDr.

To Partner’s Capital/Current A/cs

(Being salary/commission payable to a partner)

ii. For transferring Partner’s Salary/Commission A/c to Profit and Loss

Appropriation A/s:

Profit and Loss Appropriation A/cDr.

To Partner’s Salary/Commission A/c

4. For transfer of Reserves:

Profit and Loss Appropriation A/cDr.

To Reserve A/c

(Being reserve created)

5. For Interest on Drawings:

1.For charging interest on a partner’s drawings:

Partner’s Capital/Current A/c.Dr.

To Interest on Drawings A/c

(Being interest on drawings charged @ % p.a.)

2. For transferring interest on drawings to Profit and Loss Appropriation A/c

Interest on Drawings A/cDr.

To Profit and Loss Appropriation A/c

(Being interest on drawings transferred to P&L appropriation A/c)

6. For transfer to Profit (i.e. Credit Balance of Profit and Loss Appropriation Account

Profit and Loss Appropriation A/cDr.

To Partners Capital/Current A/cs

(Being profits distributed among partners)

In case of partnership business, a separate capital account is mainted for each partner. The capital accounts of partners may be maintained by any of the following two methods.

1. Fixed Capital Accounts

2. Fluctuating Capital Accounts

1. Fixed Capital Accounts

Under this method the original capitals invested by the partners remain constant, unless additional capital is introduced by an agreement. All entries relating to drawings, interest on capitals, interest on drawings, salary to partner, share of profits/losses are made in separate account whihc is called as Current Account. Thus the following two accounts are maintained when capitals are fixed.

(i) Capital Account

This account will always show a credit balance: Balance of Capital account remains fixed, it does not change every year that is why it is called fixed capital method and only the following two transactions are recorded in the Fixed Capital Accounts:


Permanent·Additional Capital Introduced

·Permanent Capital Withdrawn or Drawings out of Capital only

1. Debit balance of Current Account is shown in Assets side of Balance Sheet.

2. Credits balance of Current Account A/c is shown in Liabilities side of balance Sheet.

3. Balance of Fixed Capital Accounts are always shown in Liabilities side of Balance Sheet as it will be always be credit balance.

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2. Fluctuating Capital Accounts

In this method only one account i.e., Capital Account of each and every partner is prepared and all the adjustment such as interest on capital interest on drawings etc, are recorded in this account under this method, Capital account may show a debit or credit balance and the balance of this account changes frequently from time to time therefore it is called fluctuating Capital Account.In this method the capitals are not fixed. In the absence of information, the Capital Accounts should be prepared by this method.

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