The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the primary space agency of India. Established in 1969, it has achieved numerous milestones in the field of space research, including successful missions to the Moon and Mars. ISRO’s missions have not only propelled India’s scientific and technological progress but have also brought significant economic benefits to the country. In this article, we will delve into the details of ISRO’s missions and explore the agency’s remarkable achievements.
ISRO’s first satellite, Aryabhata, was launched on April 19, 1975, by the Soviet Union. Named after the Indian mathematician Aryabhata, the satellite was designed to study the Earth’s magnetic field, solar X-rays, and gamma rays. It weighed 360 kg and orbited the Earth for five years.
INSAT (Indian National Satellite System) is a series of geostationary satellites designed to provide communication, meteorological, and broadcasting services to the Indian subcontinent. The first INSAT satellite was launched in 1983, and currently, there are ten operational INSAT satellites in orbit. These satellites have enabled India to build a robust communication network that serves millions of people across the country.
Chandrayaan-1 was ISRO’s first lunar mission launched on October 22, 2008. The spacecraft consisted of an orbiter and a moon impact probe. The primary objective of the mission was to study the moon’s surface and its mineral composition. Chandrayaan-1 discovered water molecules on the lunar surface, which was a significant breakthrough in the field of planetary science.
4.Mars Orbiter Mission
Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also known as Mangalyaan, was ISRO’s first interplanetary mission launched on November 5, 2013. The spacecraft was designed to study the Martian surface, atmosphere, and mineral composition. MOM successfully entered the Martian orbit on September 24, 2014, making India the first country to have achieved a successful Mars mission in its first attempt. The mission also earned ISRO a place in the prestigious Guinness Book of World Records for the most number of satellites launched into orbit in a single mission.
Gaganyaan is ISRO’s ambitious manned mission to send three astronauts to space by 2022. The spacecraft will be launched using the GSLV Mk III launch vehicle. The mission aims to demonstrate India’s capability to send humans to space and make India the fourth country in the world to have achieved this feat after the United States, Russia, and China.
ISRO’s journey in the field of space research has been nothing short of remarkable. From its first satellite Aryabhata to its recent successful launch of the GSAT-30 communication satellite, ISRO has come a long way in its pursuit of space exploration. The agency’s missions have not only contributed to India’s scientific progress but have also brought significant economic benefits to the country. With the upcoming manned mission Gaganyaan, ISRO is all set to make history once again and cement its position as one of the leading space agencies in the world.
ISRO has also been actively involved in international collaborations, sharing its expertise and knowledge with other countries. The agency has launched satellites for more than 20 countries, including the United States, Germany, and France. ISRO has also been a part of joint missions with other space agencies, such as the NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) mission, which aims to provide global measurements of land surface changes using advanced radar imaging. ISRO’s international collaborations have not only strengthened India’s global standing in the field of space research but have also fostered cooperation and friendship between nations.