Chapter 5 United Nation And Its Organization Class 12 Political Science 2021-2022 CBSE Notes & PDF

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  • The first military rule in Pakistan took place under General Yahya Khan. The reason for this was the popular dissatisfaction against the rule of General Ayub Khan.
  • After this, a government was formed under the leadership of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from 1971 to 1977.
  • Bhutto Government was removed by General Zia-ul-Haq but had to face pro-democracy movement from 1982 onwards.
  • Again in 1988 an elected democratic government was established under Benazir Bhutto but had to face competition from the Pakistan People’s Party and the Muslim League.
  • Army stepped in again and General Pervez Musharraf removed Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. General Musharraf got himself elected as the President in 2001.
  • There were several factors which led to the failure of Pakistan in building a stable democracy.
  • At present, again a democratic form of government is ruling the country under Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

India-Pakistan Conflicts

  • After independence, both India and Pakistan got involved in issue related to Kashmir. It led to wars in 1947-48 and 1965 which failed to settle the matter.
  • Both the countries face conflict over strategic issues like the control of the Siachen glacier and over acquisition of arms.
  • Both the countries continue to be suspicious of each other over security issue.
  • Another issue of conflict among the two countries is over the sharing of river waters of Indus river system.
  • The two countries are not in agreement over the demarcationjine in Sir Creek in the Rann ofKutch.


  • Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan from 1947 to 1971. But it started protesting against the domination of Western Pakistan and the imposition of Urdu Language.
  • A popular struggle against West Pakistani dominance was led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
  • In 1970 election, the Awani league under Sheikh Mujibur Rahman won all seats but the government dominated by the West Pakistani leadership refused to convene the assembly.
  • The Pakistani army tried to suppress the movement which led to a large number of migration to India.
  • The Indian Government supported the demands of people of East Pakistan and helped them. This led to a war with Pakistan in 1971. Bangladesh was formed as an independent country after the end of war.
  • A Constitution was adopted by Bangladesh declaring faith in secularism, democracy and socialism. But government under Sheikh Mujibur amended the Constitution and formed Presidential form of government.
  • Sheikh Mujibur was assassinated and a military rule was established under Ziaur Rahman. He was also assassinated and the rule of Lt Gen H.M. Ershad started this continuing the military rule.
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  • A pro-democratic movement was again started which led to election in 1991. Since then representative democracy based on multi-party elections has been working in Bangladesh.


  • Nepal was a Hindu Kingdom in the past but later changed into a constitutional monarchy for many years.
  • In the wake of a strong pro-democracy movement the king accepted the demand for a new democratic Constitution in 1990.
  • There was a conflict among the democrats, maoists and monarchist forces which led to the abolition of parliament and dismissal of government in 2002 by the king.
  • Again in 2006, after a pro-democratic movement, the king was forced to restore the House of Representatives.

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  • The democratic set up of Sri Lanka was disturbed by the Ethnic conflict among the Sinhalese and Tamil origin people.
  • According to the Sinhalese, the region of Ceylon belonged to Sinhala people only and not to the Tamils who migrated from India.
  • This led to the formation of Liberation Tiger of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a militant organisation, who demanded a separate country.
  • The Government of India was pressurised by the Tamil people in India for the protection of the Tamils in Sri Lanka.
  • India signed an accord with Sri Lanka and sent troops to stabilise relations between the Sri Lankan Government and the Tamils.
  • Eventually, the Indian Army got into a fight with the LTTE. Later on the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was pulled out of Sri Lanka in 1989 without achieving its aims.
  • Presently, the LTTE has been destroyed by the Sri Lankan Government and the area under LTTE has been recovered.
  • Inspite of the Ethnic conflict, the economy of Sri Lanka has always been high.

India and its Other Neighbours

  • Neighbouring countries of India are Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Maldives and Pakistan.
  • There are certain issues of conflicts between India and Bangladesh. These include sharing of Ganga and Brahmaputra river waters, illegal immigration to India etc.
  • Still, both India and Bangladesh share a cordial relation with each other. Economic relations between the two have improved considerably.
  • Nepal and India shares a friendly relation with each other but certain issues like warm relation of Nepal with China, Maoist movement in Nepal etc have disturbed the relation.
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  • Despite differences, trade, scientific co-operation, electricity generation and inter locking water management grids hold the two countries together.
  • India enjoys a very special relationship with Bhutan too and does not have any major conflict with the Bhutanese government.


  1. Geo-Politics: Geo-politics refers to the Association of countries who are bound with each
    other geographically and their interests are also interlinked with each other politically and economically.
  2. Bilateral Talks: Talks involving the two countries without any other mediation.
  3. Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF): It was sent by India in Sri Lanka to support the demand of Tamils to be recognised.
  4. Seven Party Alliance (SPA): An alliance of seven parties in Nepal which also demanded an end to monarch.
  5. SAARC: It stands for South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation having seven members and aims at mutual trust and understanding.
  6. SAFTA: It is South Asia Free Trade Area Agreement to trade free from custom restrictions and duties by its member states.
  7. LTTE: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam in Sri Lanka which demanded a separate state for Tamils.
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